What happens if a placental abruption occurs during pregnancy? The midwife explains everything that is important to know about risks, prevention and treatments
Detachment of placenta
During pregnancy, an event known as “placental abruption“. What is it about? Is it so dangerous for mom and unborn child? Can we do anything to prevent this?
Detachment of placenta: definition
Sometimes during pregnancy it may happen that when performing an obstetric ultrasound, the specialist notices a “placental abruption “, which could put you expectant mother in alarm and apprehension.
What exactly does it mean? What’s up? That the placenta has practically detached itself in whole or in part from its normal implantation site, ie from the uterus, before the baby is born. Detachment can occur before labor begins (premature detachment) or in any case in the process of labor (early posting). A detachment that can occur at any time during pregnancy, whether in the first trimester or even in the following months; in all cases important attention is required.
What could happen so bad if the placenta becomes detached? By separating part of the placental tissue, a kind of “wound”On the uterus which then begins to bleed.
However, blood can:
stay “hidden away”, Occult, without your noticing it;
to escape to the outside through the vagina and then give an external hemorrhage;
“Break” the membranes and enter the amniotic fluid;
the collection becomes increasingly large and a real hematoma, clot, forms behind the placenta or infiltrates the entire uterine wall, giving the uterus the typical purplish, purplish, blackish color.
Associated risk factors
If it is possible, already during the first meeting in pregnancy, it is important that the obstetrician / gynecologist list the different and probable factors that may in some way involve a risk for a placental abruption. Some of these are purely maternal:
having had so many pregnancies,
disadvantaged social conditions,
diseases that can lead to an alteration of the normal placental exchange between mother and fetus (such as hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal and / or vascular diseases, congenital and / or acquired thrombophilias).
Others, all those causes of increased uterus volume such as in the case of twin pregnancy or polyhydramnios (excess amniotic fluid). But also a pregnancy with PROM (premature rupture of the amnicorial membranes) or preterm birth, could lead to a placental abruption. Type risk factors mechanic I’m:
sudden intrauterine decompression.
Therefore, it is absolutely essential that you, the future mother, know everything that could possibly contribute to the separation, in order to then be able to act accordingly.
Symptoms of placental abruption
What are the symptoms that should make you suspect that there is / has been a detachment? In the case of placental abruption, the symptoms are not always clear and specific. It is quite variable, depending on the location of the clot and the amount of blood lost. In fact, by correlating the two things, a mild, moderate and severe clinical picture can be distinguished.
Generally speaking, the symptoms you may experience and / or complain of are:
bleeding from the external genitalia of bright red but also dark red color;
on palpation, severe, continuous abdominal pain;
sudden, persistent, painful uterine contractions;
changes in BCF (fetal heartbeat).
Correct diagnosis of placental abruption
Should you come to our attention with suspected posting what confirms that you are in danger? You can undergo laboratory tests to assess the coagulation pattern, even if these are not specific to make a definitive diagnosis.
On the other hand, it turns out to be quite useful and essential clinical evaluation. That is, the midwife or the specialist doctor who took care of you, like in the emergency room, goes to evaluate the blood loss, their color and also the entity. It then performs avaginal exploration to also understand where the blood comes from, whether from the inside of the cervix or from the outside.
If you complained abdominal pain, also performs a palpation to understand if there is actually pain and in what specific area. A trace is then carried out to assess the well-being of the fetus (confirmation of the heartbeat of the unborn child) and therefore ascertain or exclude suffering, as well as record any uterine contractions, if any, and the type.
Consequences of placental abruption for mother and fetus
What does bleeding involve in pregnancy? What are the effects on both you and your baby?
In case of a significant blood loss, you may experience a particular condition called “hemorrhagic shock“Or” hypovolemic “. You may have low blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, pale skin, sweating, dizziness, anxiety, restlessness, general malaise.
As later complications you can have: coagulopathies that is defects / coagulation disorders, renal failure and damage to the uterus with loss of contractility (in this case it may be necessary to remove the uterus to save your life).
Your child, on the other hand, could undergo a condition called “hypoxia“That is, there is a lack of oxygen in the tissues with consequent death if asphyxiation occurs (lack of oxygen in the noble organs such as the heart and brain).
In less severe cases it can occur distress of the fetus (vague term that identifies a number of different ailments, including …