According to what are the guidelines of the Ministry of Health for women seeking pregnancy, the vaccinations recommended in view of conception are in particular those against measles-mumps-rubella and vaccination against chickenpox.
In fact, these are vaccines that cannot be performed during gestation and that protect the mother and baby from the serious consequences that diseases could have if contracted during pregnancy.
Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination
Among the vaccinations recommended for women seeking pregnancy, certainly the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, rather widespread diseases and not yet completely eradicated due to the lack of total vaccination coverage worldwide.
Measles, in fact, if contracted during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of complications (in particular
pneumonia) and maternal mortality compared to expected. Some studies have also found an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, preterm birth; this risk appears to be higher in the case of infection in the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Infection near delivery can increase the risk of neonatal measles, a condition burdened with significant mortality.
As for the rubellainstead, it is usually a benign disease that rarely presents complications. It becomes, however, especially dangerous during pregnancy if the mother contracts the infection in the first trimester: in fact, the earlier the infection, the higher the risk of embryo-fetal damage (around 90%). Rubella, in these cases, can be responsible for serious consequences in the product of conception, such as spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death of the fetus, severe fetal malformations (defects
vision, deafness, cardiac anomalies and delayed acquisition of developmental milestones …).
Mumps it is a mild infection in children, while complications such as encephalitis, meningitis, pancreatitis and hearing damage are common in adults. If contracted during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy it is associated with a high rate of spontaneous abortion (25%), but does not carry the risk of malformations in the fetus.
Chickenpox causes complications much more frequent in adults, particularly in pregnant women than in children, such as pneumonia, bacterial superinfections, meningitis or encephalitis; also, during the first half of pregnancy, it could cause birth defects with severe lesions of the skin, bones, eyes and brain. Therefore, in people with anamnestically negative history of the disease who have not been vaccinated before, every possible opportunity should be used to actively offer vaccination against chickenpox.